Think Crime! (2nd Edition)

AUD $49.95 each

'The best available synthesis of information on CPTED' 
Professor Marcus Felson

... A must-read chapter ..“Are You Going To The Dark Side”? ... the CPTED Community needs this text as does every Crime Prevention Practitioner.
Lawrence J. Fennelly & Marianna Perry, CPP


Think Crime!

Using Evidence, Theory and
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
for Planning Safer Cities

Paul Cozens

This book is a practical guide for CPTED professionals on how to ensure the success of CPTED programs through designing them using evidence, crime data and theory.

Some of the biggest questions for crime prevention professionals are:

  • What can I do to reduce crime?
  • How can I use CPTED more effectively?
  • What do I need to think about to prevent crime locally?
  • Which crime prevention theories will help in particular locations?
  • What crime data do I need and how can I collect it?
  • Who should I involve in the process?
  • Where should I invest my crime prevention efforts?
  • Which crime prevention tool is best in a specific situation?
  • How can I easily teach CPTED in 12 weeks?
  • How can I justify my crime prevention plans?

The book answers these questions and more!

It describes in an easy-to-understand manner:

  • How to conduct formal Crime Risk Assessments on new and existing developments.
  • How to use Crime Risk Assessments to create successful CPTED programs.
  • How to undertake CPTED Audits.
  • How to apply the criminological theories to CPTED for creating safer cities.
  • How to create and conduct Fear of Crime Surveys.
  • How to use crime data and criminological theories to create successful CPTED programs.

The book includes ready-to-use tools for gathering crime and fear of crime data to ensure CPTED programs work successfully in specific local contexts.

Think Crime! is aimed at both beginners and expert crime prevention professionals. Along with its practical nature, the book is also structured as a text book for a 12-week course on CPTED. This course would be appropriate for students, crime prevention and security professionals, urban planners, architects, Police, facilities managers, sustainable development specialists, and local governments.

Create effective CPTED programs that can be justified by using the deeper understanding provided in Think Crime! The author shows how the use of crime data, crime risk assessment, mapping criminal opportunities, fear of crime data, and theories of environmental criminology can suppport better crime prevention outcomes and policies and improved urban planning solutions, public health and sustainable development outcomes.

Table of contents

Chapter 1: What’s it all about?
The purpose of the book; the content; background themes.

Chapter 2: Did you say Big Ted, Little Ted or Sept Ted (CPTED)?
Early origins of security and crime prevention; 7 Strategies of CPTED; CPTED information and data requirements.

Chapter 3: How to get the measure of crime?
Measuring crime; fallacies about crime; criminal and delinquency self reports; problems in using and interpreting crime data; problems with consistency of crime data; attrition; problems of aggregation and obfuscation of recorded crime data; and getting the measure of crime.

Chapter 4: Crime? Where? When? Why?
Origins of Environmental Criminology; the environmental backcloth of crime and crime prevention; Opportunity-based theories of crime; Crime Pattern Theory (CPT); Routine Activities Theory (RAT); Rational Choice Theory (RCT); Situational Crime Prevention theory (SCP); CPTED and Defensible Space Theory; Broken Windows Theory.

Chapter 5: Fear of crime? Your perception?
Perceptions and crime; fear of crime; surveying and mapping fear of crime.

Chapter 6: The personal side of CPTED?
Importance of Social factors to CPTED; 2nd Generation CPTED; practical application of social considerations in CPTED; communities use of Routine Activity Theory; communities use of the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity; comparisons with Social Crime Prevention and Social Planning; an integrated dynamic model for CPTED.

Chapter 7: What’s the Risk?
Collecting Crime Risk Assessment (CRA) data; conducting Designing Out Crime Risk Assessments (DOCRA); undertaking local Fear of Crime surveys and mapping; standard processes of risk assessment; A standards-based approach to Crime Risk Assessment; Crime Risk Assessment Step 1  identifying crime risks; Crime Risk Assessment Step 2 analysing crime risks; Crime Risk Assessment Step 3 evaluating crime risks; Crime Risk Assessment Step 4 developing strategies to mitigate crime risks; alternative Crime Risk Assessment processes; CRAs in projects of differing scales; urgent Crime Risk Assessments; Crime Impact Assessments (CIAs); CRA of products,  services and systems.

Chapter 8: Can you see what’s going on?
Surveillance; history of street lighting; evaluating street lighting for crime prevention; theories of how street lighting reduces crime; practical aspects of how street lighting reduces and facilitates crime; practical CPTED considerations using street lighting; Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and video recording; evaluation of CCTV for crime prevention; theories and concepts underpinning CCTV in CPTED; practical CPTED consideration using CCTV.

Chapter 9: How do you steer? Evidence or speculation?
What is a policy?; evidence-based crime prevention policies; global CPTED Policies: United Nations; CPTED Policies in the United States of America; CPTED Policies in Canada; CPTED Policies in South America; CPTED Policies in South Africa; CPTED Policies in the European Union; CPTED Policies in the UK; CPTED Policies in the Netherlands; CPTED Policies in Asia and the Middle East; CPTED Policies in New Zealand; CPTED Policies in Australia; Designing Out Crime in Western Australia; overview of CPTED Policies; policy evaluation of CPTED programs.

Chapter 10: Who wants a healthy and sustainable future?
Planning, crime, health and sustainability; Crime costs as externalities; the Precautionary Principle; public health and crime; sustainability and crime; integrating crime, health and sustainability assessments; cradle to grave; standards’ roles.

Chapter 11: Do you CRAVE for the right opportunity?
Routine activities and Ekblom’s security framework; historical examples of Designing Out Crime in products; developments in Designing Out Crime; Stolen Hot Products, VIVA and CRAVED concepts; products and changing crime opportunities; crime life-cycles of products; new electronic products and illegitimate markets; product crime as an externality; lessons learned from product design and crime studies.

Chapter 12: Are you going to the dark side?
This chapter draws attention to the dark side of CPTED in which CPTED interventions cause harm or result in negative unhelpful outcomes.

Chapter 13: Have you really thought about this?
Crime reduction in New Urbanist and Transit Oriented Developments; eyes on the street; accessibility; enclosure vs encounter; permeability; high densities of people; mixed-use development; improved street lighting.

Chapter 14: Looking to the future
Changing places, new opportunities and the adaptive criminal.; the 10 Step adaptive CPTED process; future issues; terrorism; the Internet.


Think Crime! has  received strong positive feedback from key figures in CPTED, Crime Prevention, Planning and Environmental Criminology including:

This book is the best available synthesis of information on crime prevention through environmental design. Professor Marcus Felson, Department of Criminal Justice, Texas State University, Texas, USA.

Brings together the key subjects relevant to designing out crime, and presents them in an accessible style that considers the theoretical relevance as well as the practical application. Professor Rachel Armitage, Director, Applied Criminology Centre, University of Huddersfield, UK.

Will be of considerable theoretical and practical value .. [to].  all those who seek to understand the relationship between crime and the design of urban spaces. Professor Colin Rogers, Centre for Police Sciences, University of South Wales (UK).
This new book starts not with a 'preferred' set of solutions but with an emphasis on the need to 'think' about urban crime as a series of problems each of which has a physical and temporal context. . .  the field of planning for crime prevention will be in his debt.  Ted Kitchen, Emeritus Professor of Planning and Urban Regeneration, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

An essential source of knowledge, theories and evidence for built-environment students, professionals and policy makers.  Professor John Glasson, Department of Planning, School of the Built Environment, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.

Interdisciplinary focus, widespread coverage of key issues, and its ability to marry theory with practical applications. This is a book for students and researchers who want to gain a solid understanding of creating safe urban environments.  It is also an excellent compendium for practitioners who want to go beyond simplistic applications of CPTED to ensure that safety interventions are effective across a broad range of local situations.  Associate Professor Susan Thompson, Co-Director Healthy Built Environments Program at City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.


Dr Paul Cozens is an environmental criminologist, and a renowned expert in crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). He is an internationally accredited Advanced CPTED Practitioner, with a doctoral qualification in crime and design. Paul has worked as a crime prevention consultant on major planning and infrastructure projects in Australia and the
UK. He worked as policy advisor for the Department of Premier and Cabinet in the Western Australian government. In this role he helped develop the State's Designing Out Crime Strategy and managed a range of practical CPTED projects delivered to the community via local governments. Paul is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Planning &  Geography at Curtin University in Perth, Western Australia and Co-Director of the Design Out Crime Research Centre (